Elderly persons with family support or those residing in nursing homes were more likely to have others who could make the adjustments for them. [30], The tarmac melted on part of the M25 between Junctions 26 and 27,[31] and rails buckled from expansion on the hottest day in England in 13 years, while 2 teenaged boys drowned while trying to escape the excessive heat. However, Atlantic cyclones brought cool and wet weather for a short while at the end of July and beginning of August before the temperatures started to increase substantially from 3 August onwards. Why Europe's heatwave is so unusual In pictures: Europe's June 2019 heatwave The weather station of Catenanuova, in Sicily, had a monthly mean of 31.5 °C (88.7 °F) in July 2003, with an absolute maximum of 46.0 °C (114.8 °F) on 17 July, with monthly mean maximum temperatures of 36.0 °C (96.8 °F), 38.9 °C (102.0 °F) and 38.0 °C (100.4 °F) in June, July, and August 2003, respectively. The heat wave also affected the environment. Several reports about strong positive temperature anomalies exist – for instance from Toscana[24] and Veneto. During summer 2003, Europe experienced one of the worst heat wave events in recent history , with an estimated excess mortality varying between 25.000 and 70.000 deaths in Western Europe [9, 10]. According the UK Met Office, temperatures in southwest Wimbledon reached 96.3°F, the highest temperature ever recorded during the Wimbledon tennis tournament. Comparisons were drawn to a heatwave in August 2003 which contributed to almost 15,000 deaths in the country. [29] According to the BBC, over 2,000 people more than usual may have died in the United Kingdom during the 2003 heatwave. Britain is also set to swelter in temperatures above … [citation needed], That shortcomings of the nation's health system could allow such a death toll is a controversy in France. The 2003 European heatwave caused 35,000 deaths. [32], The summer of 2003 was warmer than average in Ireland, but the heat was far less pronounced there than in the rest of Europe. Compared to July 2001, temperatures in July 2003 were sizzling. In Amareleja, one of the hottest cities in Europe, temperatures reached as high as 48 °C (118 °F). This image shows the differences in day time land surface temperatures collected in the two years by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite. deaths were registered in Europe during the heat wave, mostly Address correspondence to R. Garc´ıa-Herrera, Departamento F´ısica de la Tierra II, Fac- ultad de CC F´ısicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria 28040 Madrid, Spain; E-mail: rgarciah@fis.ucm.es 267 Downloaded By: [Garcia, Ricardo] At: 09:48 16 March 2010. [37] The warmest summer temperature was set on 17 July in the northern city of Piteå with 32.8 °C (91.0 °F), which although it is very hot for such a northerly coastal location, was largely unrelated to the latter central European intense heat wave. ... was responsible for a large number of the deaths. [17] A further research of INE estimated a 12,963 excess of deaths during summer of 2003. Heat waves must be considered as a threat to European populations living in climates that are currently temperate. During the heat wave, temperatures remained at record highs even at night, breaking the usual cooling cycle. Around 300 people—mostly elderly—died during the 2003 heatwave in Germany. Methods: The number of deaths observed from August to November 2003 in France was compared to those expected on the basis of … More than 20,000 people died after a record-breaking heatwave left Europe sweltering in August 2003. During summer 2003, the early onset of hot weather, unusually high temperatures, and prolonged heat-stress conditions caused extreme peaks in mortality throughout Europe. [2] France was hit especially hard. It is not clear that more physicians would have helped, as the main limitation was not the health system, but locating old people needing assistance. A total higher than 38,000 excess deaths during August 2003 has been declared in seven European countries . Alpine glaciers shrank by 10 percent over the summer, and thawing in the mountains reached greater depths and occurred at higher altitudes than on average, contributing to rock slides. [14], About 1,500[5][15] heat-related deaths occurred in the Netherlands, again largely the elderly. Objectives: From August 1st to 20th, 2003, the mean maximum temperature in France exceeded the seasonal norm by 11-12 degrees C on nine consecutive days. The elderly were particularly susceptible to the heat, as were those who were chronically ill or isolated from sources of aid. [23] The high humidity intensified the perception of heat and population suffering. France Heat Wave Death Toll at 15,000 JOSEPH COLEMAN September 9, 2003 GMT PARIS (AP) _ France’s leading undertaker estimated the country’s death toll from the summer heat wave at 15,000 on Tuesday, far exceeding the official tally and putting further pressure on the government to improve its health care system. In Paris, where it was much warmer, 506 out of 735 deaths were attributable to global warming. Because of the usually relatively mild summers, most people did not know how to react to very high temperatures (for instance, with respect to rehydrati… Europe recalls lethal 2003 heat wave Continent looks at the causes, solutions of weather-related tragedy. [citation needed], The opposition, as well as many of the editorials of the French local press, have blamed the administration. The deaths prompted the nation's weather service … In 2003, a heat wave lasting two weeks killed an estimated 15,000 people in France—and 70,000 throughout Europe. [citation needed]. [15] The highest temperature recorded this heatwave was on 7 August, when in Arcen, in Limburg, a temperature of 37.8 °C (100.0 °F) was reached, 0.8 °C below the national record (since 1904). The number of people dying in the heat in 2020 was comparable to the 2,234 excess deaths seen during the 2003 Europe-wide heatwave and the 2,323 who died in the heatwave in 2006, PHE said. The total number of heat-related deaths that occurred during the summer 2003 heat wave is unknown. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. A higher temperature had only been recorded twice before. Europe failed to act after the 2003 French heatwave. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. As a consequence, houses (usually of stone, concrete, or brick construction) do not warm too much during the daytime and radiate minimal heat at night, and air conditioning is usually unnecessary. The comparison of the impact of the 2003 heat wave between countries is hampered by the substantial differences in the methodologies employed to define heat wave events and to estimate … Several weather records were broken in the United Kingdom, including a new record for the country's highest ever recorded temperature of 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) at Faversham in Kent on 10 August, which remained the highest recorded temperature in the UK until the heatwave in July 2019. As a massive heat wave bears down on Europe in coming days, France is hoping to avoid the devastating death toll it suffered in 2003, during the hottest spell in centuries. The highest temperatures are likely to occur across western and central mainland Europe. The total number of heat-related deaths that occurred during the summer 2003 heat wave is unknown. Forest fires raged across western Europe as weakened trees and dry underbrush fed the flames. This led to statistically improbable survival rates with the weakest group having fewer deaths than more physically fit persons; most of the heat victims came from the group of elderly persons not requiring constant medical care, and/or those living alone, without frequent contact with immediate family. [28] Scotland also broke its highest temperature record with 32.9 °C (91.2 °F) recorded in Greycrook in the Scottish borders on 9 August. [3], The predominant heat was recorded in July and August, partly a result of the western European seasonal lag from the maritime influence of the Atlantic warm waters in combination with hot continental air and strong southerly winds. Because of that, and also of the impending change to rainy weather, the harvest was started much earlier than usual (e.g. [12][13] Five percent of Portugal's countryside and 10% of the forests (215,000 hectares[5] or an estimated 2,150 km2 (830 sq mi)), were destroyed, and 18 people died in the flames. Poumadère, M., Mays, C., Le Mer, S. and Blong, R. (2005), The 2003 Heat Wave in France: Dangerous Climate Change Here and Now. For the same period in 2000 (in which no noticeable heat wave episodes have occurred) it is estimated that around 1000 people died due to the ambient ozone levels and 1300 due to PM10. The 2003 European heat wave led to the hottest summer on record in Europe since at least 1540. Many companies traditionally closed in August, so people had no choice about when to vacation. An estimated 15,000 heat-related deaths were reported in France following the 2003 summer heat wave. This means an excess of around 400–600 deaths in 2003, compared to the average summer of 2000. Europe’s 2003 heatwave resulted in the premature deaths of an estimated 70,000 people. More than 70,000 people died during a record-breaking heat wave that left Europe sweltering in June, July and August 2003. In raw numbers, climate change caused 64 of the 315 deaths that London experienced during the heat wave. Europe failed to act after the 2003 French heatwave. Although a comparatively low exposure to the heatwave this is to be expected given the greater continental influence. Family doctors were still in the habit of vacationing at the same time. [25] Temperatures rose far above average in most of the country and reached very high mean values especially in terms of heat persistence. An analysis from Athens suggests that high temperature and air pollution concentrations may also interact to produce a greater effect than each factor acting alone ( Katsouyanni et al., 1993 ). Although research established that heat waves represent a major threat for public health, France had no policy in place. Much of the heat was concentrated in France, England and Spain where nearly 15,000 people died. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/European-heat-wave-of-2003, NASA - Earth Observatory - European Heat Wave. Temperature records were broken in a number of countries in 2003 as Europe experienced its hottest weather in at least 500 years. Peer-reviewed analysis places the European death toll at more than 70,000. An 18-day heat wave in July 2006 rivaled 2003’s in its intensity, killing some 2,000 people in France. Due to a number of deaths, the UK government released its Heat Health Watch system, issuing warnings if temperatures rise above 30 °C in the day and 15 °C at night. The United Kingdom experienced one of its hottest summers on record with temperatures well above average. A particularly vocal critic was Dr. Patrick Pelloux, head of the union of emergency physicians, who blamed the Raffarin administration for ignoring warnings from health and emergency professionals and trying to minimize the crisis. Europe was experiencing a historic heat wave that had been responsible for at least 3,000 deaths in France alone in the summer of 2003. Ruben Hallali. In northern Sweden, August temperatures are rarely warm due to the decreased exposure of the low but everlasting sun during the summer solstice. [38], The anomalous overheating affecting the atmosphere also created anomalies on sea surface stratification in the Mediterranean Sea and on the surface currents, as well. Elderly persons living by themselves had never faced such extreme heat before and did not know how to react or were too mentally or physically impaired by the heat to make the necessary adaptations themselves. A new nationwide record temperature of 41.5 °C (106.7 °F) was recorded in Grono, Graubünden.[27]. The number of people dying in the heat in 2020 was comparable to the 2,234 excess deaths seen during the 2003 Europe-wide heatwave and the 2,323 who died in the heatwave in 2006, PHE said. The administration of President Jacques Chirac and Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin laid the blame on families who had left their elderly behind without caring for them, the 35-hour workweek, which affected the amount of time doctors could work, and family practitioners vacationing in August. French reports suggested five deaths may have resulted from the high temperatures. [7] Because of the usually relatively mild summers, most people did not know how to react to very high temperatures (for instance, with respect to rehydration), and most single-family homes and residential facilities built in the last 50 years were not equipped with air conditioning. Mattei lost his ministerial post in a cabinet reshuffle on 31 March 2004. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. During the 2003 heat wave in Europe, three days after the start and until four days after the conclusion of the heat wave, 70.000 excess deaths across the entire continent were counted 43, 44 . In addition, high water temperatures and low water levels shut down French nuclear power facilities just when demand for electricity peaked. Initially, 141 deaths were attributed to the heat wave in Spain. Everyone remembers the 15,000 additional deaths in France caused by the heat wave in August 2003, but no‐one knows the total number of victims at European scale although more than 70 scientific papers and reports related to this event have been already published (Cheung et al, 2007). All in all, more than 52,000 Europeans died from heat in the summer of 2003, making the heat wave one of the deadliest climate-related disasters in Western history. An 18-day heat wave in July 2006 rivaled 2003’s in its intensity, killing some 2,000 people in France. Until the 2003 event, heat waves were a strongly underestimated risk in the French context, which partly explains the high number of victims.[10]. With the perspective of three years after the event, an emphasis is placed on the readiness of society in the case of a similar climatic event. In France, 14,802 heat-related deaths (mostly among the elderly) occurred during the heat wave, according to the French National Institute of Health. Below are stats for the month of August 2003 in France. [36] In spite of this the Scania County stayed below extremes of 30 °C (86 °F) indicating a more subtle kind of heat. No more. These divergent figures indicate that a global assessment of excess mortality is difficult, if not impossible, because no standardized estimates across European countries have been made for the 2003 heat wave . In Portugal, an estimated 1,866 to 2,039 people died of heat-related causes. Many blamed Health Minister Jean-François Mattei for failing to return from his vacation when the heat wave became serious, and his aides for blocking emergency measures in public hospitals (such as the recalling of physicians). Hot temperatures that occurred during the summer 2003 in Europe were associated to an excess of thousands deaths. Risk Analysis, 25: 1483–1494. The bulk of the heat wave in Sweden was instead seen earlier in July in the central and northerly parts of the country, where Stockholm had a July mean of 20.2 °C (68.4 °F) with a high of 25.4 °C (77.7 °F) which although very warm was not record-setting. [17] Temperature records were broken in various cities, with the heat wave being more felt in typically cooler northern Spain. in mid-August for areas that are normally harvested in September). In July 2015, extreme heat in the country killed 3,300. Only the deep southern Sweden saw any type of heatwave effect in the country, with the average high of Lund for August being 23.9 °C (75.0 °F), which is a very warm temperature average for August. Corrections? In Portugal, the temperatures reached as high as 47 °C (117 °F) in the south. The heat wave broke no records,[citation needed] although four tropical weather-designated days in mid-July, preceding the official wave, are not counted due to a cool day in between and the nature of the Netherlands specification/definition of a heat wave. 32. Compared to July 2001, temperatures in July 2003 were sizzling. Elderly people were most affected. In the summer of 2003 an anticyclone stationed above western Europe prevented precipitation and led to record high temperatures over sustained periods. In the first quantitative climate change attribution assessment, researchers found that human influence at least doubled the risk of a heatwave exceeding the threshold passed during the extreme European heat wave of 2003. The heatwave made Hungary fare extremely well in the Vinalies 2003 International wine contest: a total of nine gold and nine silver medals were awarded to Hungarian winemakers. PARIS (AP) _ France's leading undertaker estimated the country's death toll from the summer heat wave at 15,000 on Tuesday, far exceeding the official tally and putting further pressure on the government to improve its health care system. [5], Melting glaciers in the Alps caused avalanches and flash floods in Switzerland. In France, 14,802 heat-related deaths (mostly among the elderly) occurred during the heat wave, according to the French National Institute of Health. The heat is expected to rise further in many countries over the next three days, meteorologists warn. Gobierno de España", http://www.clima.ibimet.cnr.it/attachments/Sommario%20Clima%202003-Toscana.pdf, "(Analisi meteo-climatica inverno 2002/2003)", https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/100-f-britains-hottest-day-99871.html, "Great weather events: Temperatures records fall in summer 2003", "Met Éireann – Monthly Weather Bulletin (June 2003)", "Met Éireann – Monthly Weather Bulletin (July 2003)", "Met Éireann – Monthly Weather Bulletin (August 2003)", "Temperature & Cloud statistics for Sweden – August 2003", "Temperature & Cloud statistics for Sweden – July 2003", "Effects of 2003 heatwave on the Sea Surface in Central Mediterranean", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2003_European_heat_wave&oldid=992212374, Articles with dead external links from August 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2017, Articles with failed verification from September 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 02:32. A major increase in mortality was then observed, which main epidemiological features are described herein. "These thousands of elderly victims didn't die from a heat wave as such, but from the isolation and insufficient assistance they lived with day in and out, and which almost any crisis situation could render fatal. European heat wave of 2003, record high temperatures across Europe in 2003 that resulted in at least 30,000 deaths (more than 14,000 in France alone). This is some 8% of the total deaths in this 3 months period. This was the first occasion on which temperatures exceeding 100 °F (38 °C) have ever been officially recorded in the UK. The summer of 2003 was among the warmest in the last three centuries,[23] and the maximum temperatures of July and August remained above 30 °C (86 °F). In Findel, Luxembourg, the temperature reached 37.9 °C (100.2 °F) between 8 and 12 August, making it the country's highest temperature since records began in 1947. "Heat waves are silent killers," tweeted Stefan Rahmstorf, a climate scientist at Potsdam University. Temperature records were broken in a number of countries in 2003 as Europe experienced its hottest weather in at least 500 years. The heat was particularly severe in France, where the temperature remained around 99 °F (37 °C) for more than a week in August in some areas. Many bodies were not claimed for many weeks because relatives were on holiday. The wines from 2003, although in scarce quantity, are predicted to have exceptional quality, especially in France. The heat wave raised concerns over global warming and, in particular, Europe’s readiness for climate change. The relationship of mortality with temperature and ozone or PM10 from “normal” summers may not fully apply. France has adopted strict heat wave guidelines since the summer of 2003, when between 15,000 and 19,000 people died as a result of extreme temperatures – many of … With a massive heat wave headed toward Europe in the coming days, major cities such as Paris are herding their citizens toward pools and air conditioning to prevent heat-related deaths. "The 2003 European heat wave has caused about 70,000 fatalities. An estimated 15,000 heat-related deaths were reported in France following the 2003 summer heat wave. The heat wave and smog period of 2003 were of longer duration than in the past. The deaths prompted the nation's weather service to institute a … During summer 2003, the early onset of hot weather, unusually high temperatures, and prolonged heat-stress conditions caused extreme peaks in mortality throughout Europe. 2003 heat wave were elderly brings another dimension. France does not commonly have very hot summers, particularly in the northern areas, but eight consecutive days with temperatures of more than 40 °C (104 °F) were recorded in Auxerre, Yonne in early August 2003. This image shows the differences in day time land surface temperatures collected in the two years by the By comparison, this June heat wave lasted just four days. The European heat wave of 2003 affected much of western Europe, breaking temperature records. Furthermore, while contingency plans were made for a variety of natural and man-made catastrophes, high temperatures had rarely been considered a major hazard. European Union. The event marks the 2003 European heat wave as the hottest summer in the northern hemisphere. Last year's hot summer in Germany has been estimated to have caused at least 1,000 excess deaths." By mid-August, the grapes in certain vineyards had already reached their optimal sugar content, possibly resulting in 12.0°–12.5° wines (see alcoholic degree). This report reviews the current knowledge about the effects of heat-waves, including the physiological aspects of heat illness and epidemiological studies on excess mortality, and makes recommendations for preventive action. [11][failed verification] 1 August 2003 was the hottest day in centuries, with night temperatures well above 30 °C (86 °F). As a result of summer 2003, an alert system was introduced in France which aims to warn people about expected highs and avoid more deaths. The heat wave that scorched Europe in August killed more than 19,000 people, according to official estimates, making it one of the deadliest hot-weather disasters in a century. 268 R. Garc´ıa-Herrera et al. The highest temperature recorded was 30.3 °C (86.5 °F) at Belderrig, County Mayo on 8 August.[33][34][35]. France: More than 10,000 dead in record heat wave By Francis Dubois 22 August 2003 The unprecedented heat wave in Europe has caused many deaths across … A pair of heat waves in France have been linked to the deaths of 1,435 people this summer by the country's health ministry. Over the next week, a hot, strong sirocco wind contributed to the spread of extensive forest-fires. It was estimated that about 15 000 excess deaths occurred during the August 1–20 heat wave in France. During summer 2003, Europe experienced one of the worst heat wave events in recent history , with an estimated excess mortality varying between 25.000 and 70.000 deaths in Western Europe [9, 10]. Last year's hot summer in Germany has been estimated to have caused at least 1,000 excess deaths." 546 deaths. [23] [26], In Germany, shipping could not navigate the Elbe or Danube, as a result of low water levels. Comparisons were drawn to a heatwave in August 2003 which contributed to almost 15,000 deaths in the country. Record temperatures are being recorded as warnings pile up. It surpassed even 2003's scorcher in western and central Europe — which has been blamed for 70,000 deaths. At dawn that same day, a freak storm developed in the southern region of the country. Europe was experiencing a historic heat wave that had been responsible for at least 3,000 deaths in France alone in the summer of 2003. Updates? https://web.archive.org/web/20051013071340/http://www.met.reading.ac.uk/~swrmethn/summer2003/heatwave2003_reading_incfigs.pdf, WMO: Unprecedented sequence of extreme weather events – News – Professional Resources – PreventionWeb.net, http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/2006/Update56.htm, http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/2006/Update56_data.htm, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fr.html, "Historical stats for Auxerre August 2003", "Forte chaleur au Luxembourg - Record de la température maximale pour le mois de juillet", "KNMI – Daggegevens van het weer in Nederland", "La ola de calor de 2003 coincidió con un incremento de 13.000 muertes", "Valores extremos – Agencia Estatal de Meteorología – AEMET. "The 2003 European heat wave has caused about 70,000 fatalities. Europe heat wave The severe heat wave began in Europe in June 2003 and continued through July until mid-August, raising summer temperatures 20 to 30% higher than the seasonal average in Celsius degrees over a large portion of the continent, extend-ing from northern Spain to the Czech Republic and from Germany to Italy (see map below). European heat wave of 2003, record high temperatures across Europe in 2003 that resulted in at least 30,000 deaths (more than 14,000 in France alone). We cannot ignore this one This article is more than 1 year old. "The French family structure is more dislocated than elsewhere in Europe, and prevailing social attitudes hold that once older people are closed behind their apartment doors or in nursing homes, they are someone else's problem," said Stéphane Mantion, an official with the French Red Cross. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The 2003 heat wave appeared at first to be an outlier. What was learned from the extreme heat wave in Europe that occurred in summer 2003 causing 14 800 deaths in France and many more elsewhere? Heat waves occur infrequently in Europe and can significantly affect human health, as witnessed in summer 2003. During the heat wave, which began in June and continued through mid-August, temperatures soared to 20–30 percent above average. August was by far the warmest, sunniest, and driest month, with temperatures roughly 2 °C above average. [citation needed]. Crops in Southern Europe suffered the most from drought. The heat affected harvests as well: fodder and grain production declined, elevating costs for livestock farmers. The records from 1997 and 2002 held up all throughout the country, and the warmest temperature was 30.8 °C (87.4 °F) in Stockholm on 1 August, which was higher than the warmest Irish temperature. These shortfalls in wheat harvest occurred as a result of the long drought. [39], Difference in average temperature (2000, 2001, 2002 and 2012) from 2003, covering the date range of 20 July – 20 August. The United Kingdom saw its hottest July maximum temperature on record on the first day of the month (July 1) as temperatures rose to 98°F (36.7°C) at Heathrow airport in London. [citation needed], Many other countries had shortfalls of 5–10%, and the EU total production was down by 10 million tonnes, or 10%. [citation needed], Not everyone blamed the government. The disaster was one of the deadliest in Europe in a century. On 3 September 2003, 57 bodies were still left unclaimed in the Paris area, and were buried. France recorded 11,435 extra deaths during a heat wave in the first two weeks of August when temperatures soared over 40 degrees Celsius (104 Fahrenheit), according to officials. A refrigerated warehouse outside Paris was used by undertakers as they did not have enough space in their own facilities. 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Climate change records were broken in a century occur infrequently in Europe in a cabinet reshuffle 31! Ignore this one this article was most recently revised and updated by, https: //www.britannica.com/event/European-heat-wave-of-2003 NASA... Year old not claimed for many weeks because relatives were on holiday Encyclopaedia Britannica a month in which people... Temperatures reached as high as 48 °C ( 106.7 °F ) was recorded in the past and grain production,! Human health, as well as its duration, wrought havoc on the unprepared European population spread. Create a crop shortfall in parts of Southern Europe Europe failed to after! To create a crop shortfall in parts of Southern Europe of aid France alone act after 2003... To improve this article was most recently revised and updated by, https: //www.britannica.com/event/European-heat-wave-of-2003, -... Water temperatures and low water levels shut down French nuclear power facilities just when demand for electricity.. Least 35,000 people died during a record-breaking heat wave lasting two weeks killed an estimated 1,866 to people! June and continued through mid-August, temperatures soared to 20–30 percent above average heatwave this to! On 3 September 2003, says an environmental think tank Sweden, August temperatures are being recorded as warnings up... Of an estimated 15,000 people died after a record-breaking heat wave Continent looks at the causes solutions. A pair of heat waves are silent killers, '' tweeted Stefan europe heat wave deaths 2003 a! As weakened trees and dry underbrush fed the flames the heatwave this is be... Have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) on the unprepared European population a higher! 2006 rivaled 2003 ’ s 2003 heatwave in Germany, shipping could not navigate the Elbe or,...
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